Download the PDF version of this document or visit https://openshift-kni.github.io/baremetal-deploy/

1. Overview

Installer-provisioned installation provides support for installing OpenShift Container Platform on bare metal nodes. This guide provides a methodology to achieving a successful installation.

During installer-provisioned installation on bare metal, the installer on the bare metal node labeled as provisioner creates a bootstrap VM. The role of the bootstrap VM is to assist in the process of deploying an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The bootstrap VM connects to the baremetal network and to the provisioning network, if present, via the network bridges.

Deployment phase one

When the installation of OpenShift control plane nodes is complete and fully operational, the installer destroys the bootstrap VM automatically and moves the virtual IP addresses (VIPs) to the appropriate nodes accordingly. The API VIP moves to the control plane nodes and the Ingress VIP moves to the worker nodes.

The API and DNS VIPs move into the control plane nodes and the Ingress VIP services applications that reside within the worker nodes.

Deployment phase two

2. Prerequisites

Installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform requires:

  1. One provisioner node with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8.1 installed.

  2. Three Control Plane nodes.

  3. Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) access to each node.

  4. At least two networks:

    1. One required routable network

    2. One required network for provisioning nodes; and,

    3. One optional management network.

Before starting an installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform, ensure the hardware environment meets the following requirements.

Secure Boot// Module included in the following assemblies:

2.1. Node requirements

Installer-provisioned installation involves a number of hardware node requirements:

  • CPU architecture: All nodes must use x86_64 CPU architecture.

  • Similar nodes: Red Hat recommends nodes have an identical configuration per role. That is, Red Hat recommends nodes be the same brand and model with the same CPU, memory and storage configuration.

  • Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI): Installer-provisioned installation requires IPMI enabled on each node.

  • Latest generation: Nodes must be of the most recent generation. Installer-provisioned installation relies on BMC protocols, which must be compatible across nodes. Additionally, RHEL 8 ships with the most recent drivers for RAID controllers. Ensure that the nodes are recent enough to support RHEL 8 for the provisioner node and RHCOS 8 for the control plane and worker nodes.

  • Registry node: (Optional) If setting up a disconnected mirrored registry, it is recommended the registry reside in its own node.

  • Provisioner node: Installer-provisioned installation requires one provisioner node.

  • Control plane: Installer-provisioned installation requires three control plane nodes for high availability.

  • Worker nodes: While not required, a typical production cluster has one or more worker nodes. Smaller clusters are more resource efficient for administrators and developers during development, production, and testing.

  • Network interfaces: Each node must have at least one 10GB network interface for the routable baremetal network. Each node must have one 10GB network interface for a provisioning network when using the provisioning network for deployment. Using the provisioning network is the default configuration. Network interface names must follow the same naming convention across all nodes. For example, the first NIC name on a node, such as eth0 or eno1, must be the same name on all of the other nodes. The same principle applies to the remaining NICs on each node.

  • Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI): Installer-provisioned installation requires UEFI boot on all OpenShift Container Platform nodes when using IPv6 addressing on the provisioning network. In addition, UEFI Device PXE Settings must be set to use the IPv6 protocol on the provisioning network NIC, but omitting the provisioning network removes this requirement.

2.2. Network requirements

Installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform involves several network requirements by default. First, installer-provisioned installation involves a non-routable provisioning network for provisioning the operating system on each bare metal node and a routable baremetal network. Since installer-provisioned installation deploys ironic-dnsmasq, the networks should have no other DHCP servers running on the same broadcast domain. Network administrators must reserve IP addresses for each node in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Each OpenShift Container Platform node in the cluster must have access to an NTP server.

Configuring NICs

OpenShift Container Platform deploys with two networks:

  • provisioning: The provisioning network is an optional non-routable network used for provisioning the underlying operating system on each node that is a part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. When deploying using the provisioning network, the first NIC on each node, such as eth0 or eno1, must interface with the provisioning network.

  • baremetal: The baremetal network is a routable network. When deploying using the provisioning network, the second NIC on each node, such as eth1 or eno2, must interface with the baremetal network. When deploying without a provisioning network, you can use any NIC on each node to interface with the baremetal network.

Each NIC should be on a separate VLAN corresponding to the appropriate network.

Configuring the DNS server

Clients access the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes over the baremetal network. A network administrator must configure a subdomain or subzone where the canonical name extension is the cluster name.

<cluster-name>.<domain-name>

For example:

test-cluster.example.com

For assistance in configuring the DNS server, check Appendix section for:

Reserving IP Addresses for Nodes with the DHCP Server

For the baremetal network, a network administrator must reserve a number of IP addresses, including:

  1. Three virtual IP addresses

    • One IP address for the API endpoint

    • One IP address for the wildcard ingress endpoint

    • One IP address for the name server

  2. One IP Address for the provisioner node.

  3. One IP address for each Control Plane (Master) node.

  4. One IP address for each worker node, if applicable.

The following table provides an exemplary embodiment of fully-qualified domain names. The API and Nameserver addresses begin with canonical name extensions. The hostnames of the control plane and worker nodes are exemplary, so you may use any host naming convention you prefer.

Usage Hostname IP

API

api.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Ingress LB (apps)

*.apps.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Nameserver

ns1.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Provisioner node

provisioner.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Master-0

openshift-master-0.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Master-1

openshift-master-1.<cluster-name>-.<domain>

<ip>

Master-2

openshift-master-2.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-0

openshift-worker-0.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-1

openshift-worker-1.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-n

openshift-worker-n.<cluster-name>.<domain>

<ip>

For assistance in configuring the DHCP server, check Appendix section for:

2.3. Configuring nodes

Configuring nodes when using the provisioning network

Each node in the cluster requires the following configuration for proper installation.

A mismatch between nodes will cause an installation failure.

While the cluster nodes can contain more than two NICs, the installation process only focuses on the first two NICs:

NIC

Network

VLAN

NIC1

provisioning

<provisioning-vlan>

NIC2

baremetal

<baremetal-vlan>

NIC1 is a non-routable network (provisioning) that is only used for the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

The RHEL 8.x installation process on the provisioner node might vary. To install RHEL 8.x using a local Satellite server or a PXE server, PXE-enable NIC2.

PXE

Boot order

NIC1 PXE-enabled provisioning network

1

NIC2 baremetal network. PXE-enabled is optional.

2

Ensure PXE is disabled on all other NICs.

Configure the control plane and worker nodes as follows:

PXE

Boot order

NIC1 PXE-enabled (provisioning network)

1

Configuring nodes without the provisioning network

The installation process requires one NIC:

NIC

Network

VLAN

NICx

baremetal

<baremetal-vlan>

NICx is a routable network (baremetal) that is used for the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, and routable to the internet.

2.4. Out-of-band management

Nodes will typically have an additional NIC used by the Baseboard Management Controllers (BMCs). These BMCs must be accessible from the provisioner node.

Each node must be accessible via out-of-band management. When using an out-of-band management network, the provisioner node requires access to the out-of-band management network for a successful OpenShift Container Platform 4 installation.

The out-of-band management setup is out of scope for this document. We recommend setting up a separate management network for out-of-band management. However, using the provisioning network or the baremetal network are valid options.

2.5. Required data for installation

Prior to the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, gather the following information from all cluster nodes:

  • Out-of-band management IP

    • Examples

      • Dell (iDRAC) IP

      • HP (iLO) IP

  • NIC1 (provisioning) MAC address

  • NIC2 (baremetal) MAC address

  • NICx (baremetal) MAC address

2.6. Validation checklist for nodes

When using the provisioning network
  • NIC1 VLAN is configured for the provisioning network.

  • NIC2 VLAN is configured for the baremetal network.

  • NIC1 is PXE-enabled on the provisioner, Control Plane (master), and worker nodes.

  • PXE has been disabled on all other NICs.

  • Control plane and worker nodes are configured.

  • All nodes accessible via out-of-band management.

  • A separate management network has been created. (optional)

  • Required data for installation.

When omitting the provisioning network
  • NICx VLAN is configured for the baremetal network.

  • Control plane and worker nodes are configured.

  • All nodes accessible via out-of-band management.

  • A separate management network has been created. (optional)

  • Required data for installation.

Summary

After an environment has been prepared according to the documented prerequisites, the installation process is the same as other installer-provisioned platforms.

3. Setting up the environment for an OpenShift installation

3.1. Installing RHEL on the provisioner node

With the networking configuration complete, the next step is to install RHEL 8.X on the provisioner node. The installer uses the provisioner node as the orchestrator while installing the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. For the purposes of this document, installing RHEL on the provisioner node is out of scope. However, options include but are not limited to using a RHEL Satellite server, PXE, or installation media.

3.2. Preparing the provisioner node for OpenShift Container Platform installation

Perform the following steps to prepare the environment.

Procedure
  1. Log in to the provisioner node via ssh.

  2. Create a non-root user (kni) and provide that user with sudo privileges.

    [root@provisioner ~]# useradd kni
    [root@provisioner ~]# passwd kni
    [root@provisioner ~]# echo "kni ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/kni
    [root@provisioner ~]# chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/kni
  3. Create an ssh key for the new user.

    [root@provisioner ~]# su - kni -c "ssh-keygen -t rsa -f /home/kni/.ssh/id_rsa -N ''"
  4. Log in as the new user on the provisioner node.

    [root@provisioner ~]# su - kni
    [kni@provisioner ~]$
  5. Use Red Hat Subscription Manager to register the provisioner node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo subscription-manager register --username=<user> --password=<pass> --auto-attach
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms

    For more information about Red Hat Subscription Manager, see Using and Configuring Red Hat Subscription Manager.

  6. Install the following packages.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo dnf install -y libvirt qemu-kvm mkisofs python3-devel jq ipmitool
  7. Modify the user to add the libvirt group to the newly created user.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo usermod --append --groups libvirt <user>
  8. Restart firewalld and enable the http service.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo systemctl start firewalld
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http --permanent
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=libvirt  --permanent
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=public   --permanent
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  9. Start and enable the libvirtd service.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo systemctl start libvirtd
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo systemctl enable libvirtd --now
  10. Create the default storage pool and start it.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo virsh pool-define-as --name default --type dir --target /var/lib/libvirt/images
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo virsh pool-start default
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo virsh pool-autostart default
  11. Configure networking.

    This step can also be run from the web console.

    Provisioning Network (IPv4 address)
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo nohup bash -c """
        nmcli con down "$PROV_CONN"
        nmcli con delete "$PROV_CONN"
        # RHEL 8.1 appends the word "System" in front of the connection, delete in case it exists
        nmcli con down "System $PROV_CONN"
        nmcli con delete "System $PROV_CONN"
        nmcli connection add ifname provisioning type bridge con-name provisioning
        nmcli con add type bridge-slave ifname "$PROV_CONN" master provisioning
        nmcli connection modify provisioning ipv4.addresses 172.22.0.1/24 ipv4.method manual
        nmcli con down provisioning
        nmcli con up provisioning"""

    The ssh connection might disconnect after executing this step.

    The IPv4 address may be any address as long as it is not routable via the baremetal network.

    Provisioning Network (IPv6 address)
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo nohup bash -c """
        nmcli con down "$PROV_CONN"
        nmcli con delete "$PROV_CONN"
        # RHEL 8.1 appends the word "System" in front of the connection, delete in case it exists
        nmcli con down "System $PROV_CONN"
        nmcli con delete "System $PROV_CONN"
        nmcli connection add ifname provisioning type bridge con-name provisioning
        nmcli con add type bridge-slave ifname "$PROV_CONN" master provisioning
        nmcli connection modify provisioning ipv6.addresses fd00:1101::1/64 ipv6.method manual
        nmcli con down provisioning
        nmcli con up provisioning"""

    The ssh connection might disconnect after executing this step.

    The IPv6 address may be any address as long as it is not routable via the baremetal network.

    Ensure that UEFI is enabled and UEFI PXE settings are set to the IPv6 protocol when using IPv6 addressing.

  12. ssh back into the provisioner node (if required).

    # ssh kni@provisioner.<cluster-name>.<domain>
  13. Verify the connection bridges have been properly created.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ nmcli con show
    NAME               UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE
    baremetal          4d5133a5-8351-4bb9-bfd4-3af264801530  bridge    baremetal
    provisioning       43942805-017f-4d7d-a2c2-7cb3324482ed  bridge    provisioning
    virbr0             d9bca40f-eee1-410b-8879-a2d4bb0465e7  bridge    virbr0
    bridge-slave-eno1  76a8ed50-c7e5-4999-b4f6-6d9014dd0812  ethernet  eno1
    bridge-slave-eno2  f31c3353-54b7-48de-893a-02d2b34c4736  ethernet  eno2
  14. Create a pull-secret.txt file.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ vim pull-secret.txt

    In a web browser, navigate to Install on Bare Metal with user-provisioned infrastructure, and scroll down to the Downloads section. Click Copy pull secret. Paste the contents into the pull-secret.txt file and save the contents in the kni user’s home directory.

3.3. Retrieving the OpenShift Container Platform installer (GA Release)

Use the latest-4.x version of the installer to deploy the latest generally available version of OpenShift Container Platform:

[kni@provisioner ~]$ export VERSION=latest-4.4
export RELEASE_IMAGE=$(curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/release.txt | grep 'Pull From: quay.io' | awk -F ' ' '{print $3}')

3.4. Extracting the OpenShift Container Platform installer (GA Release)

After retrieving the installer, the next step is to extract it.

Procedure
  1. Set the environment variables:

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export cmd=openshift-baremetal-install
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export pullsecret_file=~/pull-secret.txt
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export extract_dir=$(pwd)
  2. Get the oc binary:

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/openshift-client-linux.tar.gz | tar zxvf - oc
  3. Extract the installer:

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo cp oc /usr/local/bin
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc adm release extract --registry-config "${pullsecret_file}" --command=$cmd --to "${extract_dir}" ${RELEASE_IMAGE}
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo cp openshift-baremetal-install /usr/local/bin

3.5. Creating an RHCOS images cache (optional)

To employ image caching, you must download two images: the RHCOS image used by the bootstrap VM and the RHCOS image used by the installer to provision the different nodes. Image caching is optional, but especially useful when running the installer on a network with limited bandwidth.

If you are running the installer on a network with limited bandwidth and the RHCOS images download takes more than 15 to 20 minutes, the installer will timeout. Caching images on a web server will help in such scenarios.

Use the following steps to install a container that contains the images.

  1. Install podman.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo dnf install -y podman
  2. Open firewall port 8080 to be used for RHCOS Image caching.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=8080/tcp --zone=public --permanent
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  3. Create a directory to store the bootstraposimage and clusterosimage.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ mkdir /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache
  4. Set the appropriate SELinux context for the newly created directory.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_content_t "/home/kni/rhcos_image_cache(/.*)?"
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo restorecon -Rv rhcos_image_cache/
  5. Get the commit ID from the installer. The ID determines which images the installer needs to download.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export COMMIT_ID=$(/usr/local/bin/openshift-baremetal-install version | grep '^built from commit' | awk '{print $4}')
  6. Get the URI for the RHCOS image that the installer will deploy on the nodes.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq .images.openstack.path | sed 's/"//g')
  7. Get the URI for the RHCOS image that the installer will deploy on the bootstrap VM.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export RHCOS_QEMU_URI=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq .images.qemu.path | sed 's/"//g')
  8. Get the path where the images are published.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export RHCOS_PATH=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json | jq .baseURI | sed 's/"//g')
  9. Get the SHA hash for the RHCOS image that will be deployed on the bootstrap VM.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export RHCOS_QEMU_SHA_UNCOMPRESSED=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq -r '.images.qemu["uncompressed-sha256"]')
  10. Get the SHA hash for the RHCOS image that will be deployed on the nodes.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ export RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA_COMPRESSED=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq -r '.images.openstack.sha256')
  11. Download the images and place them in the /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache directory.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ curl -L ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_QEMU_URI} -o /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_QEMU_URI}
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ curl -L ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI} -o /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI}
  12. Confirm SELinux type is of httpd_sys_content_t for the newly created files.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ ls -Z /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache
  13. Create the pod.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ podman run -d --name rhcos_image_cache \
    -v /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache:/var/www/html \
    -p 8080:8080/tcp \
    registry.centos.org/centos/httpd-24-centos7:latest

3.6. Configuration files

3.6.1. Configuring the install-config.yaml file

The install-config.yaml file requires some additional details. Most of the information is teaching the installer and the resulting cluster enough about the available hardware so that it is able to fully manage it.

  1. Configure install-config.yaml. Change the appropriate variables to match the environment, including pullSecret and sshKey.

    apiVersion: v1
    basedomain: <domain>
    metadata:
      name: <cluster-name>
    networking:
      machineCIDR: <public-cidr>
      networkType: OVNKubernetes
    compute:
    - name: worker
      replicas: 2 (1)
    controlPlane:
      name: master
      replicas: 3
      platform:
        baremetal: {}
    platform:
      baremetal:
        apiVIP: <api-ip>
        ingressVIP: <wildcard-ip>
        dnsVIP: <dns-ip>
        provisioningNetworkInterface: <NIC1>
        provisioningNetworkCIDR: <CIDR>
        hosts:
          - name: openshift-master-0
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip> (2)
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            hardwareProfile: default
          - name: openshift-master-1
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            hardwareProfile: default
          - name: openshift-master-2
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            hardwareProfile: default
          - name: openshift-worker-0
            role: worker
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            hardwareProfile: unknown
          - name: openshift-worker-1
            role: worker
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            hardwareProfile: unknown
    pullSecret: '<pull_secret>'
    sshKey: '<ssh_pub_key>'
    1 Scale the worker machines based on the number of worker nodes that are part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    2 Refer to the BMC adressing for more options
  2. Create a directory to store cluster configs.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ mkdir ~/clusterconfigs
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ cp install-config.yaml ~/clusterconfigs
  3. Ensure all bare metal nodes are powered off prior to installing the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ ipmitool -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <management-server-ip> power off
  4. Remove old bootstrap resources if any are left over from a previous deployment attempt.

    for i in $(sudo virsh list | tail -n +3 | grep bootstrap | awk {'print $2'});
    do
      sudo virsh destroy $i;
      sudo virsh undefine $i;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i --pool default;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i.ign --pool default;
    done

3.6.2. Setting proxy settings within the install-config.yaml file (optional)

To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using a proxy, make the following changes to the install-config.yaml file.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: <domain>
proxy:
  httpProxy: http://USERNAME:PASSWORD@proxy.example.com:PORT
  httpsProxy: https://USERNAME:PASSWORD@proxy.example.com:PORT
  noProxy: <WILDCARD_OF_DOMAIN>,<PROVISIONING_NETWORK/CIDR>,<BMC_ADDRESS_RANGE/CIDR>

See below for an example of noProxy with values.

noProxy: .example.com,172.22.0.0/24,10.10.0.0/24

With a proxy enabled, set the appropriate values of the proxy in the corresponding key/value pair.

Key considerations:

  • If the proxy does not have an HTTPS proxy, change the value of httpsProxy from https:// to http://.

  • If using a provisioning network, include it in the noProxy setting, otherwise the installer will fail.

  • Set all of the proxy settings as environment variables within the provisioner node. For example, HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY, and NO_PROXY.

3.6.3. Modifying the install-config.yaml file for no provisioning network (optional)

To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster without a provisioning network, make the following changes to the install-config.yaml file.

3.6.4. Additional install-config parameters

See the following tables for the required parameters, the hosts parameter, and the bmc parameter for the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1. Required parameters
Parameters Default Description

baseDomain

The domain name for the cluster. For example, example.com.

sshKey

The sshKey configuration setting contains the key in the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file required to access the control plane nodes and worker nodes. Typically, this key is from the provisioner node.

pullSecret

The pullSecret configuration setting contains a copy of the pull secret downloaded from the Install OpenShift on Bare Metal page when preparing the provisioner node.

metadata:
    name:

The name to be given to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. For example, openshift.

networking:
    machineCIDR:

The public CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) of the external network. For example, 10.0.0.0/24 .

compute:
  - name: worker

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster requires a name be provided for worker (or compute) nodes even if there are zero nodes.

compute:
    replicas: 2

Replicas sets the number of worker (or compute) nodes in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

controlPlane:
    name: master

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster requires a name for control plane (master) nodes.

controlPlane:
    replicas: 3

Replicas sets the number of control plane (master) nodes included as part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

provisioningNetworkInterface

The name of the network interface on control plane nodes connected to the provisioning network.

defaultMachinePlatform

The default configuration used for machine pools without a platform configuration.

apiVIP

api.<clustername.clusterdomain>

The VIP to use for internal API communication.

This setting must either be provided or pre-configured in the DNS so that the default name resolves correctly.

disableCertificateVerification

False

redfish and redfish-virtualmedia need this parameter to manage BMC addresses. The value should be True when using a self-signed certificate for BMC addresses.

ingressVIP

test.apps.<clustername.clusterdomain>

The VIP to use for ingress traffic.

Provide this setting or pre-configure it in the DNS so that the default name resolves correctly.

dnsVIP

The VIP to use for internal DNS communication.

This setting has no default and must always be provided.

Table 2. Optional Parameters
Parameters Default Description

provisioningDHCPExternal

false

Defines if the installer uses an external DHCP or the provisioner node DHCP.

provisioningDHCPRange

172.22.0.10,172.22.0.100

Defines the IP range for nodes on the provisioning network.

provisioningNetworkCIDR

172.22.0.0/24

The CIDR for the network to use for provisioning. This option is required when not using the default address range on the provisioning network.

clusterProvisioningIP

The third IP address of the provisioningNetworkCIDR.

The IP within the cluster where the provisioning services run. Defaults to the 3rd IP of the provisioning subnet. For example, 172.22.0.3.

bootstrapProvisioningIP

The second IP address of the provisioningNetworkCIDR.

The IP on the bootstrap VM where the provisioning services run while the the installer is deploying the control plane (master) nodes. Defaults to the second IP of the provisioning subnet. For example, 172.22.0.2 .

externalBridge

baremetal

The name of the baremetal bridge of the hypervisor attached to the baremetal network.

provisioningBridge

provisioning

The name of the provisioning bridge on the provisioner host attached to the provisioning network.

defaultMachinePlatform

The default configuration used for machine pools without a platform configuration.

bootstrapOSImage

A URL to override the default operating system image for the bootstrap node. The URL must contain a SHA-256 hash of the image. For example: https://mirror.openshift.com/rhcos-<version>-qemu.qcow2.gz?sha256=<uncompressed_sha256>; .

clusterOSImage

A URL to override the default operating system for cluster nodes. The URL must include a SHA-256 hash of the image. For example, https://mirror.openshift.com/images/rhcos-<version>-openstack.qcow2.gz?sha256=<compressed_sha256>;.

provisioningNetwork

Set this parameter to Disabled to disable the requirement for a provisioning network. User may only do virtual media based provisioning, or bring up the cluster using assisted installation. If using power management, BMC’s must be accessible from the machine networks. User must provide two IP addresses on the external network that are used for the provisioning services.

Hosts

The hosts parameter is a list of separate bare metal assets used to build the cluster.

Name

Default

Description

name

The name of the BareMetalHost resource to associate with the details. For example, openshift-master-0.

role

The role of the bare metal node. Either master or worker.

bmc

Connection details for the baseboard management controller. See the BMC addressing section for additional details.

bootMACAddress

The MAC address of the NIC the host will use to boot on the provisioning network.

hardwareProfile

default

This parameter exposes the device name that the installer attempts to deploy the OpenShift Container Platform cluster for the control plane and worker nodes. The value defaults to default for control plane nodes and unknown for worker nodes. The list of profiles includes: default, libvirt, dell, dell-raid, and openstack. The default parameter attempts to install on /dev/sda of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes.

3.6.5. BMC addressing

The address field for each bmc entry is a URL for connecting to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes, including the type of controller in the URL scheme and its location on the network.

IPMI

IPMI hosts use ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>:<port> and defaults to port 623 if not specified. The following example demonstrates an IPMI configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
RedFish for HPE

To enable RedFish, use redfish:// or redfish+http:// to disable TLS. The installer requires both the hostname or the IP address and the path to the system ID. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True
RedFish for Dell

To enable RedFish, use redfish:// or redfish+http:// to disable TLS. The installer requires both the hostname or the IP address and the path to the system ID. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True

Currently RedFish is only supported on Dell with iDRAC firmware versions 4.20.20.20 through 04.39.00.00 for IPI on Bare metal deployments. There is a known issue with version 04.40.00.00.

RedFish Virtual Media for HPE

To enable RedFish Virtual Media for HPE servers, use redfish-virtualmedia:// in the address setting. The following example demonstrates using RedFish Virtual Media within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True

Deploying with RedFish Virtual Media involves meeting minimum firmware requirements. See Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media in the Prerequisites section for details.

RedFish Virtual Media for Dell

For RedFish Virtual Media on Dell servers, use idrac-virtualmedia:// in the address setting.

The following example demonstrates using iDRAC Virtual Media within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: idrac-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a RedFish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: idrac-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True

Deploying with RedFish Virtual Media involves meeting minimum firmware requirements. See Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media in the Prerequisites section for details.

3.6.6. Root device hints

The rootDeviceHints parameter enables the installer to provision the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image to a particular device. The installer examines the devices in the order it discovers them, and compares the discovered values with the hint values. The installer uses the first discovered device that matches the hint value. The configuration can combine multiple hints, but a device must match all hints for the installer to select it.

Table 3. Subfields
Subfield Description

deviceName

A string containing a Linux device name like /dev/vda. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

hctl

A string containing a SCSI bus address like 0:0:0:0. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

model

A string containing a vendor-specific device identifier. The hint can be a substring of the actual value.

vendor

A string containing the name of the vendor or manufacturer of the device. The hint can be a sub-string of the actual value.

serialNumber

A string containing the device serial number. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

minSizeGigabytes

An integer representing the minimum size of the device in gigabytes.

wwn

A string containing the unique storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

wwnWithExtension

A string containing the unique storage identifier with the vendor extension appended. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

wwnVendorExtension

A string containing the unique vendor storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

rotational

A Boolean indicating whether the device should be a rotating disk (true) or not (false).

Example usage
     - name: master-0
       role: master
       bmc:
         address: ipmi://10.10.0.3:6203
         username: admin
         password: redhat
       bootMACAddress: de:ad:be:ef:00:40
       rootDeviceHints:
         deviceName: "/dev/sda"

3.6.7. Creating the OpenShift Container Platform manifests

  1. Create the OpenShift Container Platform manifests.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ ./openshift-baremetal-install --dir ~/clusterconfigs create manifests
    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings
    WARNING Discarding the Openshift Manifest that was provided in the target directory because its dependencies are dirty and it needs to be regenerated

3.7. Creating a disconnected registry (optional)

In some cases, you might want to install an Openshift KNI cluster using a local copy of the installation registry. This could be for enhancing network efficiency because the cluster nodes are on a network that does not have access to the internet.

A local, or mirrored, copy of the registry requires the following:

  • A certificate for the registry node. This can be a self-signed certificate.

  • A webserver - this will be served by a container on a system.

  • An updated pull secret that contains the certificate and local repository information.

Creating a disconnected registry on a registry node is optional. The subsequent sections indicate that they are optional since they are steps you need to execute only when creating a disconnected registry on a registry node. You should execute all of the subsequent sub-sections labeled "(optional)" when creating a disconnected registry on a registry node.

3.7.1. Preparing the registry node to host the mirrored registry (optional)

Make the following changes to the registry node.

Procedure
  1. Open the firewall port on the registry node.

    [user@registry ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=libvirt  --permanent
    [user@registry ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=public   --permanent
    [user@registry ~]$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  2. Install the required packages for the registry node.

    [user@registry ~]$ sudo yum -y install python3 podman httpd httpd-tools jq
  3. Create the directory structure where the repository information will be held.

    [user@registry ~]$ sudo mkdir -p /opt/registry/{auth,certs,data}

3.7.2. Generating the self-signed certificate (optional)

Generate a self-signed certificate for the registry node and put it in the /opt/registry/certs directory.

Procedure
  1. Adjust the certificate information as appropriate.

    [user@registry ~]$ host_fqdn=$( hostname --long )
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_c="<Common Name>"    # Certificate Common Name (CN)
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_s="<State>"          # Certificate State (S)
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_l="<Locality>"       # Certificate Locality (L)
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_o="<Organization>"   # Certificate Organization (O)
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_ou="<Org Unit>"      # Certificate Organizational Unit (OU)
    [user@registry ~]$ cert_cn="${host_fqdn}"    # Certificate Common Name (CN)
    
    [user@registry ~]$ openssl req \
        -newkey rsa:4096 \
        -nodes \
        -sha256 \
        -keyout /opt/registry/certs/domain.key \
        -x509 \
        -days 365 \
        -out /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt \
        -subj "/C=${cert_c}/ST=${cert_s}/L=${cert_l}/O=${cert_o}/OU=${cert_ou}/CN=${cert_cn}"
    When replacing <Common Name>, ensure it only contains two letters. For example, US.
  2. Update the registry node’s ca-trust with the new certificate.

    [user@registry ~]$ sudo cp /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
    [user@registry ~]$ sudo update-ca-trust extract

3.7.3. Creating the registry podman container (optional)

The registry container uses the /opt/registry directory for certificates, authentication files, and to store its data files.

The registry container uses httpd and needs an htpasswd file for authentication.

Procedure
  1. Create an htpasswd file in /opt/registry/auth for the container to use.

    [user@registry ~]$ htpasswd -bBc /opt/registry/auth/htpasswd <user> <passwd>

    Replace <user> with the user name and <passwd> with the password.

  2. Create and start the registry container.

    [user@registry ~]$ podman create \
      --name ocpdiscon-registry \
      -p 5000:5000 \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH=htpasswd" \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH_HTPASSWD_REALM=Registry" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_SECRET=ALongRandomSecretForRegistry" \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH_HTPASSWD_PATH=/auth/htpasswd" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_CERTIFICATE=/certs/domain.crt" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_KEY=/certs/domain.key" \
      -e "REGISTRY_COMPATIBILITY_SCHEMA1_ENABLED=true" \
      -v /opt/registry/data:/var/lib/registry:z \
      -v /opt/registry/auth:/auth:z \
      -v /opt/registry/certs:/certs:z \
      docker.io/library/registry:2
    [user@registry ~]$ podman start ocpdiscon-registry

3.7.4. Copy and update the pull-secret (optional)

Copy the pull secret file from the provisioner node to the registry node and modify it to include the authentication information for the new registry node.

Procedure
  1. Copy the pull-secret.txt file.

    [user@registry ~]$ scp kni@provisioner:/home/kni/pull-secret.txt pull-secret.txt
  2. Update the host_fqdn environment variable with the fully qualified domain name of the registry node.

    [user@registry ~]$ host_fqdn=$( hostname --long )
  3. Update the b64auth environment variable with the base64 encoding of the http credentials used to create the htpasswd file.

    [user@registry ~]$ b64auth=$( echo -n '<username>:<passwd>' | openssl base64 )

    Replace <username> with the user name and <passwd> with the password.

  4. Set the AUTHSTRING environment variable to use the base64 authorization string. The $USER variable is an environment variable containing the name of the current user.

    [user@registry ~]$ AUTHSTRING="{\"$host_fqdn:5000\": {\"auth\": \"$b64auth\",\"email\": \"$USER@redhat.com\"}}"
  5. Update the pull-secret file.

    [user@registry ~]$ jq ".auths += $AUTHSTRING" < pull-secret.json > pull-secret-update.json

3.7.5. Mirroring the repository (optional)

Procedure
  1. Copy the oc binary from the provisioner node to the registry node.

    [user@registry ~]$ sudo scp kni@provisioner:/usr/local/bin/oc /usr/local/bin
  2. Mirror the remote install images to the local repository.

    [user@registry ~]$ /usr/local/bin/oc adm release mirror \
      -a pull-secret-update.json
      --from=$UPSTREAM_REPO \
      --to-release-image=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO:${VERSION} \
      --to=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO

3.7.6. Modify the install-config.yaml file to use the disconnected registry (optional)

On the provisioner node, the install-config.yaml file should use the newly created pull-secret from the pull-secret-update.json file. The install-config.yaml file must also contain the disconnected registry node’s certificate and registry information.

Procedure
  1. Add the disconnected registry node’s certificate to the install-config.yaml file. The certificate should follow the "additionalTrustBundle: |" line and be properly indented, usually by two spaces.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "additionalTrustBundle: |" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sed -e 's/^/  /' /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt >> install-config.yaml
  2. Add the mirror information for the registry to the install-config.yaml file.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "imageContentSources:" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "- mirrors:" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  - registry.example.com:5000/ocp4/openshift4" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  source: quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-v4.0-art-dev" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "- mirrors:" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  - registry.example.com:5000/ocp4/openshift4" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  source: registry.svc.ci.openshift.org/ocp/release" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "- mirrors:" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  - registry.example.com:5000/ocp4/openshift4" >> install-config.yaml
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo "  source: quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-release" >> install-config.yaml
    Replace registry.example.com with the registry’s fully qualified domain name.

3.8. Deploying routers on worker nodes

During installation, the installer deploys router pods on worker nodes. By default, the installer installs two router pods. If the initial cluster has only one worker node, or if a deployed cluster requires additional routers to handle external traffic loads destined for services within the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can create a yaml file to set an appropriate number of router replicas.

By default, the installer deploys two routers. If the cluster has at least two worker nodes, you can skip this section. For more information on the Ingress Operator see: Ingress Operator in OpenShift Container Platform.

If the cluster has no worker nodes, the installer deploys the two routers on the control plane nodes by default. If the cluster has no worker nodes, you can skip this section.

Procedure
  1. Create a router-replicas.yaml file.

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
    spec:
      replicas: <num-of-router-pods>
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        type: HostNetwork
      nodePlacement:
        nodeSelector:
          matchLabels:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/worker: ""

    Replace <num-of-router-pods> with an appropriate value. If working with just one worker node, set replicas: to 1. If working with more than 3 worker nodes, you can increase replicas: from the default value 2 as appropriate.

  2. Save and copy the router-replicas.yaml file to the clusterconfigs/openshift directory.

    cp ~/router-replicas.yaml clusterconfigs/openshift/99_router-replicas.yaml

3.9. Validation checklist for installation

  • OpenShift Container Platform installer has been retrieved.

  • OpenShift Container Platform installer has been extracted.

  • Required parameters for the install-config.yaml have been configured.

  • The hosts parameter for the install-config.yaml has been configured.

  • The bmc parameter for the install-config.yaml has been configured.

  • Conventions for the values configured in the bmc address field have been applied.

  • Created a disconnected registry (optional).

  • Validate disconnected registry settings if in use. (optional)

  • Deployed routers on worker nodes. (optional)

3.10. Deploying the cluster via the OpenShift Container Platform installer

Run the OpenShift Container Platform installer:

[kni@provisioner ~]$ ./openshift-baremetal-install --dir ~/clusterconfigs --log-level debug create cluster

3.11. Following the installation

During the deployment process, you can check the installation’s overall status by issuing the tail command to the .openshift_install.log log file in the install directory folder.

[kni@provisioner ~]$ tail -f /path/to/install-dir/.openshift_install.log

4. Day 2 operations

The following sections are optional, but may be of interest after the initial deployment has been completed.

4.1. Backing up the cluster configuration

At this point you have a working OpenShift 4 cluster on baremetal. In order to take advantage of the baremetal hardware that was the provision node, you can repurpose the provisioning node as a worker. Prior to reprovisioning the node, it is recommended to backup some existing files.

Procedure
  1. Tar the clusterconfig folder and download it to your local machine.

    tar cvfz clusterconfig.tar.gz ~/clusterconfig
  2. Copy the Private part for the SSH Key configured on the install-config.yaml file to your local machine.

    tar cvfz clusterconfigsh.tar.gz ~/.ssh/id_rsa*
  3. Copy the install-config.yaml and metal3-config.yaml files.

    tar cvfz yamlconfigs.tar.gz install-config.yaml metal3-config.yaml

4.2. Expanding the cluster

After deploying an installer-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can use the following procedures to expand the number of worker nodes. Ensure that each prospective worker node meets the prerequisites.

Expanding the cluster using RedFish Virtual Media involves meeting minimum firmware requirements. See Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media in the Prerequisites section for additional details when expanding the cluster using RedFish Virtual Media.

4.2.1. Preparing the bare metal node

Expanding the cluster requires a DHCP server. Each node must have a DHCP reservation.

Preparing the bare metal node requires executing the following procedure from the provisioner node.

Procedure
  1. Get the oc binary, if needed. It should already exist on the provisioner node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/openshift-client-linux-$VERSION.tar.gz | tar zxvf - oc
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo cp oc /usr/local/bin
  2. Power off the bare metal node via the baseboard management controller and ensure it is off.

  3. Retrieve the username and password of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller. Then, create base64 strings from the username and password. In the following example, the username is root and the password is calvin.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "root" | base64
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "calvin" | base64
  4. Create a configuration file for the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ vim bmh.yaml
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret
    type: Opaque
    data:
      username: <base64-of-uid>
      password: <base64-of-pwd>
    ---
    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>
    spec:
      online: true
      bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
      bmc:
        address: <protocol>://<bmc-ip>
        credentialsName: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret

    Replace <num> for the worker number of bare metal node in the two name fields and credentialsName field. Replace <base64-of-uid> with the base64 string of the username. Replace <base64-of-pwd> with the base64 string of the password. Replace <NIC1-mac-address> with the MAC address of the bare metal node’s first NIC.

    Refer to the BMC addressing section for additional BMC configuration options. Replace <protocol> with the BMC protocol, such as IPMI, RedFish, or others. Replace <bmc-ip> with the IP address of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller.

  5. Create the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api create -f bmh.yaml
    secret/openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret created
    baremetalhost.metal3.io/openshift-worker-<num> created

    Where <num> will be the worker number.

  6. Power up and inspect the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true

4.2.2. Provisioning the bare metal node

Provisioning the bare metal node requires executing the following procedure from the provisioner node.

Procedure
  1. Ensure the PROVISIONING STATUS is ready before provisioning the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$  oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  2. Get a count of the number of worker nodes.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get nodes
    NAME                                                STATUS   ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    provisioner.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-3.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
  3. Get the machine set.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api
    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    ...
    openshift-worker-0.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
    openshift-worker-1.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
  4. Increase the number of worker nodes by one.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc scale --replicas=<num> machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Replace <num> with the new number of worker nodes. Replace <machineset> with the name of the machine set from the previous step.

  5. Check the status of the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number. The status changes from ready to provisioning.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioning          openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true

    The provisioning status remains until the OpenShift Container Platform cluster provisions the node. This can take 30 minutes or more. Once complete, the status will change to provisioned.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioned           openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  6. Once provisioned, ensure the bare metal node is ready.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get nodes
    NAME                                          STATUS   ROLES   AGE     VERSION
    provisioner.openshift.example.com             Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-3.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-<num>.openshift.example.com  Ready    worker  3m27s   v1.16.2

    You can also check the kubelet.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ ssh openshift-worker-<num>
    [kni@openshift-worker-<num>]$ journalctl -fu kubelet

4.2.3. Preparing the provisioner node to be deployed as a worker node

Procedure

Perform the following steps prior to converting the provisioner node to a worker node.

  1. ssh to a system (for example, a laptop) that can access the out of band management network of the current provisioner node.

  2. Copy the backups clusterconfig.tar.gz, clusterconfigsh.tar.gz, and amlconfigs.tar.gz to the new system.

  3. Copy the oc binary from the existing provisioning node to the new system.

  4. Make a note of the mac addresses, the baremetal network IP used for the provisioner node, and the IP address of the Out of band Management Network.

  5. Reboot the system and ensure that PXE is enabled on the provisioning network and PXE is disabled for all other NICs.

  6. If installation was performed using a Satellite server, remove the Host entry for the existing provisioning node.

  7. Install the ipmitool on the new system in order to power off the provisioner node.

4.2.4. Adding a worker node to an existing cluster

Procedure
  1. Retrieve the username and password of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller. Then, create base64 strings from the username and password. In the following example, the username is root and the password is calvin.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "root" | base64
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "calvin" | base64
  2. Create a configuration file for the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ vim bmh.yaml
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret
    type: Opaque
    data:
      username: <base64-of-uid>
      password: <base64-of-pwd>
    ---
    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>
    spec:
      online: true
      bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
      bmc:
        address: ipmi://<bmc-ip>
        credentialsName: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret

    Replace <num> for the worker number of bare metal node in two name fields and credentialsName field. Replace <base64-of-uid> with the base64 string of the username. Replace <base64-of-pwd> with the base64 string of the password. Replace <NIC1-mac-address> with the MAC address of the bare metal node’s first NIC. Replace <bmc-ip> with the IP address of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller.

When using redfish or redfish-virtualmedia, add the appropriate addressing as described in the BMC addressing section. See BMC addressing for details.

  1. Create the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api create -f bmh.yaml
    secret/openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret created
    baremetalhost.metal3.io/openshift-worker-<num> created

    Where <num> will be the worker number.

  2. Power up and inspect the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  3. Ensure the PROVISIONING STATUS is ready before provisioning the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$  oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  4. Get a count of the number of worker nodes.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get nodes
  5. Get the machine set.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api
    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    openshift-worker-0.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
    openshift-worker-1.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
    openshift-worker-2.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
  6. Increase the number of worker nodes by 1.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc scale --replicas=<num> machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Replace <num> with the new number of worker nodes. Replace <machineset> with the name of the machine set from the previous step.

  7. Check the status of the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number. The status changes from ready to provisioning.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioning          openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true

    The provisioning status remains until the OpenShift Container Platform cluster provisions the node. This may take 30 minutes or more. Once complete, the status will change to provisioned.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioned           openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  8. Once provisioned, ensure the bare metal node is ready.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc get nodes
    NAME                                                STATUS   ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    provisioner.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-<num>.openshift.example.com        Ready    worker          3m27s   v1.16.2

    You can also check the kubelet.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ ssh openshift-worker-<num>
    [kni@openshift-worker-<num>]$ journalctl -fu kubelet
Appending DNS records
Configuring Bind (Option 1)
Procedure
  1. Login to the DNS server using ssh.

  2. Suspend updates to all dynamic zones: rndc freeze.

  3. Edit /var/named/dynamic/example.com.

    $ORIGIN openshift.example.com.
    <OUTPUT_OMITTED>
    openshift-worker-1      A       <ip-of-worker-1>
    openshift-worker-2      A       <ip-of-worker-2>

    Remove the provisioner as it is replaced by openshift-worker-2.

  4. Increase the SERIAL value by 1.

  5. Edit /var/named/dynamic/1.0.10.in-addr.arpa.

    The filename 1.0.10.in-addr.arpa is the reverse of the public CIDR example 10.0.1.0/24.

  6. Increase the SERIAL value by 1.

  7. Enable updates to all dynamic zones and reload them: rndc thaw.

Configuring dnsmasq (Option 2)
Procedure

Append the following DNS record to the /etc/hosts file on the server hosting the dnsmasq service.

<OUTPUT_OMITTED>
<NIC2-IP> openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com openshift-worker-1
<NIC2-IP> openshift-worker-2.openshift.example.com openshift-worker-2

Remove the provisioner.openshift.example.com entry as it is replaced by worker-2

Appending DHCP reservations
Configuring dhcpd (Option 1)
Procedure
  1. Login to the DHCP server using ssh.

  2. Edit /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.hosts.

    host openshift-worker-2 {
         option host-name "worker-2";
         hardware ethernet <NIC2-mac-address>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }

    Remove the provisioner as it is replaced by openshift-worker-2.

  3. Restart the dhcpd service.

    systemctl restart dhcpd
Configuring dnsmasq (Option 2)
Procedure
  1. Append the following DHCP reservation to the /etc/dnsmasq.d/example.dns file on the server hosting the dnsmasq service.

    <OUTPUT_OMITTED>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-worker-1>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-worker-2.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-worker-2>

    Remove the provisioner.openshift.example.com entry as it is replaced by worker-2

  2. Restart the dnsmasq service.

    systemctl restart dnsmasq
Deploying the provisioner node as a worker node using Metal3

After you have completed the prerequisites, perform the deployment process.

Procedure
  1. Power off the node using ipmitool and confirm the provisioning node is powered off.

    ssh <server-with-access-to-management-net>
    # Use the user, password and Management net IP adddress to shutdown the system
    ipmitool -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <management-server-ip> power off
    # Confirm the server is powered down
    ipmitool -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <management-server-ip> power status
    Chassis Power is off
  2. Get base64 strings for the Out of band Management credentials. In this example, the user is root and the password is calvin.

    # Use echo -ne, otherwise you will get your secrets with \n which will cause issues
    # Get root username in base64
    echo -ne "root" | base64
    # Get root password in base64
    echo -ne "calvin" | base64
  3. Configure the BaremetalHost bmh.yaml file.

    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-2-bmc-secret
    type: Opaque
    data:
      username: ca2vdAo=
      password: MWAwTWdtdC0K
    ---
    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-2
    spec:
      online: true
      bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
      bmc:
        address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
        credentialsName: openshift-worker-2-bmc-secret
  4. Create the BaremetalHost.

    ./oc -n openshift-machine-api create -f bmh.yaml
    secret/openshift-worker-2-bmc-secret created
    baremetalhost.metal3.io/openshift-worker-2 created
  5. Power up and inspect the node.

    ./oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-2
    
    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-2   OK       inspecting                       ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>                      true
  6. After finishing the inspection, the node is ready to be provisioned.

    ./oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-2
    
    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-2   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  7. Scale the workers machineset. Previously, there were two replicas during original installation.

    ./oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api
    NAME            DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    openshift-worker-2   0         0                             21h
    
    ./oc -n openshift-machine-api scale machineset openshift-worker-2 --replicas=3
  8. The baremetal host moves to provisioning status. This can take as long as 30 minutes. You can follow the status from the node console.

    oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-2
    
    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-2   OK       provisioning          openshift-worker-0-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  9. When the node is provisioned it moves to provisioned status.

    oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-2
    
    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-2   OK       provisioned           openshift-worker-2-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  10. When the kubelet finishes initialization the node is ready for use. You can connect to the node and run journalctl -fu kubelet to check the process.

    oc get node
    NAME                                            STATUS   ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    openshift-master-0.openshift.example.com        Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com        Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com        Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com        Ready    worker          3m27s   v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com        Ready    worker          3m27s   v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-2.openshift.example.com        Ready    worker          3m27s   v1.16.2

5. Appendix

In this section of the document, extra information is provided that is outside of the regular workflow.

5.1. Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting the installation is out of scope of the Deployment Guide. For more details on troubleshooting deployment, refer to our Troubleshooting guide.

5.2. Creating DNS Records

Two options are documented for configuring DNS records:

5.2.1. Configuring Bind (Option 1)

Use Option 1 if access to the appropriate DNS server for the baremetal network is accessible or a request to your network admin to create the DNS records is an option. If this is not an option, skip this section and go to section Create DNS records using dnsmasq (Option 2).

Create a subzone with the name of the cluster that is going to be used on your domain. In our example, the domain used is example.com and the cluster name used is openshift. Make sure to change these according to your environment specifics.

Procedure
  1. Login to the DNS server using ssh.

  2. Suspend updates to all dynamic zones: rndc freeze.

  3. Edit /var/named/dynamic/example.com.

    $ORIGIN openshift.example.com.
    $TTL 300        ; 5 minutes
    @  IN  SOA  dns1.example.com.  hostmaster.example.com. (
           2001062501  ; serial
           21600       ; refresh after 6 hours
           3600        ; retry after 1 hour
           604800      ; expire after 1 week
           86400 )     ; minimum TTL of 1 day
    ;
    api                     A       <api-ip>
    ns1                     A       <dns-vip-ip>
    $ORIGIN apps.openshift.example.com.
    *                       A       <wildcard-ingress-lb-ip>
    $ORIGIN openshift.example.com.
    provisioner             A       <NIC2-ip-of-provision>
    openshift-master-0      A       <NIC2-ip-of-openshift-master-0>
    openshift-master-1      A       <NIC2-ip-of-openshift-master-1>
    openshift-master-2      A       <NIC2-ip-of-openshift-master-2>
    openshift-worker-0      A       <NIC2-ip-of-openshift-worker-0>
    openshift-worker-1      A       <NIC2-ip-of-openshift-worker-1>
  4. Increase the serial value by 1.

  5. Edit /var/named/dynamic/1.0.10.in-addr.arpa.

    $ORIGIN 1.0.10.in-addr.arpa.
    $TTL 300
    @  IN  SOA  dns1.example.com.  hostmaster.example.com. (
           2001062501  ; serial
           21600       ; refresh after 6 hours
           3600        ; retry after 1 hour
           604800      ; expire after 1 week
           86400 )     ; minimum TTL of 1 day
    ;
    126 IN      PTR      provisioner.openshift.example.com.
    127	IN        	PTR    	openshift-master-0.openshift.example.com.
    128	IN        	PTR    	openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com.
    129	IN 	        PTR   	openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com.
    130	IN 	        PTR   	openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com.
    131	IN        	PTR    	openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com.
    132 IN      PTR     api.openshift.example.com.
    133 IN      PTR     ns1.openshift.example.com.

    In this example, the IP addresses 10.0.1.126-133 are pointed to the corresponding fully qualified domain name.

    The filename 1.0.10.in-addr.arpa is the reverse of the public CIDR example 10.0.1.0/24.

  6. Increase the serial value by 1.

  7. Enable updates to all dynamic zones and reload them: rndc thaw.

5.2.2. Configuring dnsmasq (Option 2)

To create DNS records, open the /etc/hosts file and add the NIC2 (baremetal net) IP followed by the hostname. In our example, the domain used is example.com and the cluster name used is openshift. Make sure to change these according to your environment specifics.

Procedure
  1. Edit /etc/hosts and add the NIC2 (baremetal net) IP followed by the hostname.

    cat /etc/hosts
    127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
    ::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
    <NIC2-IP> provisioner.openshift.example.com provisioner
    <NIC2-IP> openshift-master-0.openshift.example.com openshift-master-0
    <NIC2-IP> openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com openshift-master-1
    <NIC2-IP> openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com openshift-master-2
    <NIC2-IP> openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com openshift-worker-0
    <NIC2-IP> openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com openshift-worker-1
    <API-IP>  api.openshift.example.com api
    <DNS-VIP-IP> ns1.openshift.example.com ns1
  2. Open the appropriate firewalld DNS service and reload the rules.

    systemctl restart firewalld
    firewall-cmd --add-service=dns --permanent
    firewall-cmd --reload

5.3. Creating DHCP reservations

Two options are documented for configuring DHCP:

5.3.1. Configuring dhcpd (Option 1)

Use Option 1 if access to the appropriate DHCP server for the baremetal network is accessible or a request to your network admin to create the DHCP reservations is an option. If this is not an option, skip this section and go to section Create DHCP records using dnsmasq (Option 2).

  1. Login to the DHCP server using ssh.

  2. Edit /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.hosts.

    host provisioner {
         option host-name "provisioner";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
    host openshift-master-0 {
         option host-name "openshift-master-0";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
    
    host openshift-master-1 {
         option host-name "openshift-master-1";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
    
    host openshift-master-2 {
         option host-name "openshift-master-2";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
    host openshift-worker-0 {
         option host-name "openshift-worker-0";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
    host openshift-worker-1 {
         option host-name "openshift-worker-1";
         hardware ethernet <mac-address-of-NIC2>;
         option domain-search "openshift.example.com";
         fixed-address <ip-address-of-NIC2>;
      }
  3. Restart the dhcpd service.

    systemctl restart dhcpd

5.3.2. Configuring dnsmasq (Option 2)

Set up dnsmasq on a server that can access the baremetal network.

Procedure
  1. Install dnsmasq.

    dnf install -y dnsmasq
  2. Change to the /etc/dnsmasq.d directory.

    cd /etc/dnsmasq.d
  3. Create a file that reflects your OpenShift cluster appended by .dns.

    touch <filename>.dns
  4. Open the appropriate firewalld DHCP service.

    systemctl restart firewalld
    firewall-cmd --add-service=dhcp --permanent
    firewall-cmd --reload
  5. Define DNS configuration file

    IPv4

    Here is an example of the .dns file for IPv4.

    domain-needed
    bind-dynamic
    bogus-priv
    domain=openshift.example.com
    dhcp-range=<baremetal-net-starting-ip,baremetal-net-ending-ip>
    #dhcp-range=10.0.1.4,10.0.14
    dhcp-option=3,<baremetal-net-gateway-ip>
    #dhcp-option=3,10.0.1.254
    resolv-file=/etc/resolv.conf.upstream
    interface=<nic-with-access-to-baremetal-net>
    #interface=em2
    server=<ip-of-existing-server-on-baremetal-net>
    
    
    #Wildcard for apps -- make changes to cluster-name (openshift) and domain (example.com)
    address=/.apps.openshift.example.com/<wildcard-ingress-lb-ip>
    
    #Static IPs for Masters
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,provisioner.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-provisioner>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-master-0.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-openshift-master-0>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-openshift-master-1>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-openshift-master-2>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-openshift-worker-0>
    dhcp-host=<NIC2-mac-address>,openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com,<ip-of-openshift-worker-1>
  6. Create the resolv.conf.upstream file to provide DNS fowarding to an existing DNS server for resolution to the outside world.

    search <domain.com>
    nameserver <ip-of-my-existing-dns-nameserver>
  7. Restart the dnsmasq service.

    systemctl restart dnsmasq
  8. Verify the dnsmasq service is running.

    systemctl status dnsmasq